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Kar-Ann Toh              

PhD, Senior Member IEEE.

Email:

Personal Home Page

(Updated 8 Feb 2013)

 

 

Research Interests

 

·        Biometrics

 

o   Multimodal biometrics fusion

 

Biometric is one of the most promising means to prevail conventional security methods. The main reason being that biometric gives authority directly to the user and not to indirect means such as a token or a password. However, there remain many problems to be resolved before biometric can really gain wide applications. For example, due to inherent limitations as well as external sensing factors, no single biometric method can warrant a hundred percent authentication accuracy as well as universality of usage by itself without imposing strict conditions during usage. Noting that these problems may be alleviated by combining multiple biometric methods, we are thus motivated to seek effective means to combine several biometrics to improve the situation.

 

o   Face and hand biometrics

 

The face and the hand are among the most conveniently accessible human body parts. This possibly explains the pervasive usage of face and fingerprint in authentication applications, particularly those related to personal identity and travel documents. Due to the large intra-class variations which overlap much into the inter-class variations, as well as the inherently large image size which leads to high dimensionality, face recognition based on 2D images is considered to be among the most challenging problems. Likewise, identity verification based on 2D fingerprint images is also a challenging task even though the images could be acquired under a much controlled environment. Our main focus in these themes will be on deriving effective means for feature extraction. 

 

o   Biometric security

 

Apart from using a biometric for authentication, the security of the biometric itself remains an issue. Under this research theme, we will focus on revocable biometrics where a feature template can be easily replaced when it is compromised.

 

 

·        Pattern Classification and Machine Learning

 

o   Pattern classification

 

Pattern classification is a key component in many decision processes spanning various fields of research in science and engineering. Examples include biometric authentication, medical diagnosis, information fusion and data mining. Apart from statistical means, learning from examples constitutes a major paradigm in pattern classification. Under this paradigm, a classifier minimizes a cost function and forms a map between the input feature space and the output hypothesis space of possible functional attributes such as pattern classes. In view of the nonlinearity incurred from the error counting process thereby requiring an almost inevitable iterative search for an optimized solution, we seek a deterministic approach in this work.

Recently, we have found that a zero-one counting step function in the minimum classification error (MCE) problem can be effectively approximated by a quadratic function, and this approximation together with a linear parametric learning model give rise to a closed-form solution minimizing the MCE. The approximation has also been extended to maximize the area under ROC for biometrics fusion where, again, a closed-form solution can be obtained. (Ref: PAMI-2008, PR-2008a,b)

 

o   Network learning and optimization

 

As an universal approximator, the artificial neural network becomes a natural choice in many black box learning applications. For a feedforward network with random hidden neurons, the above mentioned quadratic approximation holds well for the zero-one loss objective used in training and can be well adapted with good classification property. Moreover, through a dual formulation of the solution, the learning can always be either determined or over-determined. (Ref: NeuralComp-2008)

 

 

 

Professional Activities

 

 

o   Associate Editor, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, (Since 16 Jan 2013)

o   Associate Editor, Pattern Recognition Letters, Elsevier (Since March 2011)

o   Founding Editorial Board Member, IET Biometrics, IET (Launched in March 2012)

o   Guest editors: Jiankun Hu, Vijayakumar Bhagavatula, Mohammed Bennamoun and Kar-Ann Toh, Special Issue on Biometric Security for Mobile Computing, Security and Communication Networks Journal, John Wiley, 2011.

o   (Book editorial) Haizhou Li, Kar-Ann Toh, and Liyuan Li, Advanced Topics in Biometrics, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2011.

 

o   The 5th IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics, Mar 30-Apr01, 2012, New Delhi, India, (ICB'12)

o   International Joint Conference on Biometrics, October 2011, Washington DC, USA, (IJCB'11)

o   IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications, November 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (ICSIPA'11)

o   IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications, November 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (ICSIPA'09)

 

o   Dong Sun, Yiguang Hong, Stan Li, and Kar-Ann Toh, Program Co-Chairs, The 12th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, December 2012, Shenzhen, China (ICARCV 2012) Call for Papers

o   Andrew Teoh, Pong C. Yuen, Jiankun Hu, Jaihie Kim and Kar-Ann Toh, ICIEA Invited Session on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Seventh International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 18-20 July 2012,  Singapore (ICIEA 2012) Call for Papers

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair of Signal Processing, Seventh International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 18-20 July 2012,  Singapore (ICIEA 2012) Call for Papers

o   Andrew Teoh, Kwanghoon Sohn, Jiankun Hu, Arun Ross, and Kar-Ann Toh, ICIEA Invited Session on Biometrics and Pattern Recognition, 21-23 June 2011, Beijing, China (ICIEA 2011)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair of Signal Processing, Sixth International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 21-23 June 2011, Beijing, China (ICIEA 2011)

o   Arun Ross, Kar-Ann Toh and Sudeep Sarkar, Program chairs, IEEE Fourth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2010), 27-29 September 2010, Washington DC, USA (BTAS 2010)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Jiankun Hu and Andrew Teoh, ICIEA Invited Session on Biometrics, 15-17 June 2010, Taichung, Taiwan (ICIEA 2010)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Kwanghoon Sohn and Sangyoun Lee, Special Session on Vision, Recognition and Biometrics,  IEEE TENCON 2009, 23-26 November 2009, Singapore (TENCON 2009)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair of Signal Processing, Fifth International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 15-17 June 2010, Taichung, Taiwan (ICIEA 2010)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Andrew Teoh and Kwanghoon Sohn, ICIEA Invited Session on Pattern Analysis and Biometrics, 25-27 May 2009, Xi’an, China (ICIEA 2009)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair of Signal Processing, Fourth International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 25-27 May 2009, Xi’an, China (ICIEA 2009)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Technical Track Chair, The Tenth International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, 17-20 December 2008, Hanoi, Vietnam (ICARCV 2008)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Zujun Hou and Andrew Teoh, ICIEA Invited Session on Pattern Analysis and Biometrics, 3-5 June 2008, Singapore (ICIEA 2008)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair of Signal Processing, Third International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications 3-5 June 2008, Singapore (ICIEA 2008)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Track Chair, IEEE International Conferences on Cybernetics & Intelligent Systems (CIS) and Robotics, Automation & Mechatronics (RAM), 3-6 June, 2008, Chengdu, China (CIS-RAM 2008) Call for papers

o   Kar-Ann Toh, and Andrew B. J. Teoh, Chair/Vice Chair of ISATC Outreach Task Force 2007-2008, IEEE Computational Intelligence Society.

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Sangyoun Lee, and Jaihie Kim, ICIEA Invited Session on Biometrics, Fusion and Pattern Recognition, 23-25 May, 2007, Harbin, China (ICIEA 2007)

o   Kar-Ann Toh, Technical Track Chair, The Ninth International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, 5-8 December 2006, Singapore (ICARCV 2006)

o   Kar-Ann Toh and Ke Chen, ICIEA Invited Session on Pattern Analysis and Biometrics, 24-26 May, 2006, Singapore (ICIEA 2006)

o   Ke Chen, Kar-Ann Toh and Peter Tino, Special Session on Natural Computation for Temporal Data Processing, 16-21, July 2006, Vancouver, Canada (WCCI’06-IJCNN’2006)

 

 

o   The 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 11-15 November 2012, Tsukuba Science City, Japan (ICPR 2012)

o    International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval, 4-7 October 2012, Barcelona Spain, (KDIR'112)

o   The IEEE Fifth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2012), 23-27 September 2012, Washington DC, USA (BTAS 2012)

o   The 5th IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics, Mar 30-Apr01, 2012, New Delhi, India, (ICB'12)

o   The 6th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 10-13 July 2012, Leganes, Mandrid, Spain (MUE'12)

o   International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval, 26-29 October 2011, Paris France, (KDIR'11)

o   First Asian Conference on Pattern Recognition, 28-30 November 2011, Beijing, China (ACPR'11)

o   International Joint Conference on Biometrics, 11-13 October 2011, Washington DC, USA, (IJCB'11)

o    The 7th International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’11), and the 8th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’11), ), 26-28 July 2011, Shanghai, China (ICNC’11-FSKD’11)

o   The 8th edition of the SPIE Biometrics Technology for Human Identification, Part of program track on Defense, Homeland Security,  and Law Enforcement , Orlando, FL, USA,  25-29 April 2011 (SPIE DS108)

o   The 11th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, 7-10 December 2010, Singapore (ICARCV 2010) Call for Papers

o   International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval, 25-28 October 2010, Valencia, Spain (KDIR 2010)

o   The 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 23-26 August 2010, Istanbul, Turkey (ICPR 2010) Call for Papers

o   IEEE International Conferences on Cybernetics & Intelligent Systems (CIS) and Robotics, Automation & Mechatronics (RAM), 7-9 June, 2010, Singapore (CIS-RAM 2010) Call for papers

o   The 6th International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’10), and the 7th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’10), ), 10-12 August 2010, Yantai, China (ICNC’10-FSKD’10) Call for papers

o   The 7th edition of the SPIE Biometric Technology for Human Identification VII, Part of program track on Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement , Orlando, FL, USA,  05-06 April 2010 (SPIE DS108)

o   Joint COST 2101 & 2102 International Conference on Biometric ID Management and Multimedia Communication, Madrid, Spain, 16-18 September 2009 (BioID_MultiComm’09).

o   IEEE TENCON 2009, 23-26 November 2009, Singapore (TENCON 2009)

o   International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval, 6-8 October 2009, Madeira, Portugal (KDIR 2009)

o   The Fifth International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’09), and the Sixth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’09), ), 14-16 August 2009, Tianjin, China (ICNC’09-FSKD’09) Call for papers

o   The 6th edition of the SPIE Biometric Technology for Human Identification VI, Part of program track on Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement , Orlando, FL, USA,  13-17 April 2009 (SPIE DS108)

o   2009 IEEE Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Aerospace Applications, 30March-2April 2009, Nashville, TN, USA (IEEE CIAA 2009 in IEEE SSCI 2009)

o   Intelligent Systems Applications TC 2008-2009, IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (IEEE ISATC).

o   Intelligent Systems Applications TC 2007-2008, IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (IEEE ISATC).

o   International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems, 28 November - 1 December 2007, Xiamen, China (ISPACS 2007) Call for Papers

o   IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 25-28 September 2007, Singapore (CEC 2007) Call for papers

o   The Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’07), and the Fourth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’07), ), 24-27 August 2007, Haikou, China (ICNC’07-FSKD’07) Call for papers

o   IEEE International Conferences on Cybernetics & Intelligent Systems (CIS) and Robotics, Automation & Mechatronics (RAM), 7-9 June, 2006, Bangkok, Thailand (CIS-RAM 2006) Call for papers

o   The Second International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’06), and the Third International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’06), ), 24-27 September 2006, Xi'an, China (ICNC’06-FSKD’06) Call for papers

o   International Conference on Biometrics, 5-7 January 2006, Hong Kong (ICB 2006) Call for Papers

o   The 5th International Conference on Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication, 20-22 July 2005, New York, USA (AVBPA 2005) Call for Papers

o   The 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 13-16 December 2005, Singapore (CIRAS 2005) Call for Papers

o   International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems, 13-16 December 2005, Hong Kong (ISPACS 2005) Call for Papers

o   International Conference on Natural Computation, 27-29 August 2005, Changsha, Hunan, China  (ICNC 2005) Call for Papers

o   The 11th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, 22-25 November 2004, Calcutta, India (ICONIP 2004)

 

o   IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

o   IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security

o   IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing

o   IEEE Trans. on Image Processing

o   IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks and Learning Systems

o   IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering

o   IEEE Trans. on Automation Science and Engineering

o   IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech and Language Processing

o   IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Part I.

o   IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Part II.

o   IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering.

o   IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics – Part B.

o   IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics – Part C.

o   IEEE Trans. on Industrial Informatics.

o   IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering Magazine

o   IEEE Intelligent Systems

o   IEEE Systems Journal

o   IET Computer Vision

o   Information Sciences

o   Pattern Recognition

o   Neurocomputing

o   Pattern Recognition Letters.

o   Computer Vision and Image Understanding

o   EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing.

o   The Computer Journal

o   Neural Information Processing - Letters and Reviews.

o   International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology

o   International Journal of Information Technology.

o   Journal of Network and Computer Applications

o   Security and Communication Networks Journal

o   The Journal of Systems and Software

o   KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems

o   IETE Technical Review

o   ETRI Journal

o   IET Biometrics

o   Computing

 

·         Reviewer of international conferences:

o   International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 14-19 June 2009, Atlanta, GA, USA (IJCNN 2009)

o   International Conference on Biometrics, 2-5 June 2009, University of Sassari, Italy (ICB 2009)

o   IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, 1-3 September 2008, Qingdao, China (IEEE-ICAL 2008)

o   International Conference on Biometrics, 27-29 August 2007, Seoul, Korea (ICB 2007)

o   International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 12-17 August 2007, Orlando, Florida, USA (IJCNN 2007)

o   The Second International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 23-25 May, 2007, Harbin, China (ICIEA 2007)

o   International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’06), and the Third International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD’06), ), 24-27 September 2006, Xi'an, China (ICNC’06-FSKD’06)

o   International Conferences on Cybernetics & Intelligent Systems (CIS) and Robotics, Automation & Mechatronics (RAM), 7-9 June 2006, Bangkok, Thailand (CIS-RAM 2006)

o   First International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 24-26 May, 2006, Singapore (ICIEA 2006)

o   International Conference on Biometrics, 5-7 January 2006, Hong Kong (ICB’2006)

o   International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 13-16 December 2005, Singapore (CIRAS 2005)

o   International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems, 13-16 December 2005, Hong Kong (ISPACS 2005)

o   International workshop on multimedia signal processing, November 2005, Shanghai, China (MMSP 2005)

o   International Conference on Natural Computation, 27-29 August 2005, Changsha, Hunan, China (ICNC 2005)

o   International Conference on Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication, 20-22 July 2005, New York, USA (AVBPA 2005)

o   International Conference on Biometric Authentication, 15-17 July 2004, Hong Kong (ICBA’2004)

o   International Conference on Neural Information Processing, 22-25 November 2004, Calcutta, India (ICONIP’2004)

o   International Symposium on Intelligent Multimedia, Video and Speech Processing, 20-22 October 2004, Hong Kong (ISIMP’2004)

o   International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision (ICARCV’2000, ICARCV'2002, ICARCV’2004, ICARCV2006, and ICARCV 2008)

 

Seminars / Invited Lectures / Workshops / Talks

 

·         “Linear and Advanced Classifier Design for Biometric Systems”, Biometric School 2012 (Winter Edition), Permai Rainforest Resort, Kuching, Malaysia, 9-13 January 2012.

 

·          “Linear Methods for Pattern Classification”, Seminar,  Franklin, level 11, Connexis South Tower, Fusionopolis, Singapore, 5 September 2011.

 

·         “Deterministic Classifier Learning”, Seminar, Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 30 June 2011.

 

·         “Deterministic Classifier Learning”, Seminar, Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, 30 June 2011.

 

·         “Deterministic Classifier Learning”, Seminar, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, China, 24 June 2011.

 

·         “Linear Methods for Classification”, Seminar, College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, China, 23 June 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selected Journal Publications

 

·        International Journals

 

Biometrics and Applications

 

·         B.-S. Oh, K.-A. Toh, K. Choi, Andrew B. J. Teoh, and J. Kim, “Extraction and Fusion of Partial Face Features for Cancelable Identity Verification”, Pattern Recognition, 2012 (to appear).

 

·         M.-H. Lim, Andrew B.J. Teoh and K.-A. Toh, “An Efficient Dynamic Reliability-Dependent Bit Allocation for Biometric Discretization”, Pattern Recognition, 2012 (to appear).

 

·         K. Choi, K.-A. Toh, H. Byun, “Realtime Training on Mobile Devices for Face Recognition Applications”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 44, no. 2, pp.386-400, 2011.

 

·         Y. Kim, A. B. J. Teoh, and K.-A. Toh, “A performance Driven Methodology for Cancelable Face Templates Generation”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 2544-2559, 2010.

 

·         S.-K. Kim, Y. J. Park, K.-A. Toh, and S. Lee, “SVM-based Feature Extraction for Face Recognition”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 2871-2881, 2010.

 

·         H.-L. Eng, K.-A. Toh, W.-Y. Yau and J. Wang, “DEWS: A Live Visual Surveillance System for Early Drowning Detection at Pool”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp.196-210, February 2008. (Regular)

 

·         C. Lee, J.-Y. Choi, K.-A. Toh, S. Lee and J. Kim, “Alignment-Free Cancelable Fingerprint Templates Based on Local Minutiae Information”, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol. 37, no. 4, pp.980-992, August, 2007 (Regular).

 

·         K.-A. Toh and W.-Y. Yau, “Fingerprint and Speaker Verification Decisions Fusion Using A Functional Link NetworkIEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C, vol. 35, no. 3, pp.357-370, August, 2005 (Regular).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, X. Jiang and W.-Y. Yau, “Exploiting Global and Local Decisions for Multimodal Biometrics Verification”, IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing (Supplement on Secure Media), vol. 52, no. 10, pp.3059-3072, October 2004 (Regular).

 

·         K.-A. Toh and W.-Y. Yau, “Combination of Hyperbolic Functions for Multimodal Biometrics Data FusionIEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol.34, no.2, pp.1196-1209, 2004 (Regular).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, W.-Y. Yau and X. Jiang, “A Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model For Multimodal Biometrics And Classifiers Fusion”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (Special Issue on Image- and Video-Based Biometrics), vol.14, no.2, pp.224-233, February 2004. (Letters)

 

Pattern Classification, Neural and Machine Learning

 

·         Y. Kim, K.-A. Toh, Andrew B. J. Teoh, H.-L. Eng, W.-Y. Yau, “An Online AUC Formulation for Binary Classification”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 45, no.6, pp.2266-2279, June 2012.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, J. Kim and S. Lee, “Maximizing Area Under ROC Curve for Biometric Scores Fusion”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 3373-3392, November 2008.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, J. Kim and S. Lee, “Biometric Scores Fusion Based on Total Error Rate Minimization”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 1066-1082, March, 2008.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Deterministic Neural Classification”, Neural Computation, vol. 20, no. 6, pp.1565-1595,  June 2008. (Letter)

 

·         K.-A. Toh and H.-L. Eng, “Between Classification-Error Approximation and Weighted Least-Squares Learning”, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.30, no.4, pp.658-669, April 2008 (Regular).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Training a Reciprocal-Sigmoid Classifier by Feature Scaling-Space”, Machine Learning, vol. 65, no.1, pp.273-308, October 2006. (MATLAB codes available in the paper)

 

·         Q.-L. Tran, K.-A. Toh, D. Srinivasan, K.-L. Wong and Q.-C. Low,, “An Empirical Comparison of Nine Pattern ClassifiersIEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol. 35, no.5, pp.1079-1091, October 2005. (Correspondence)

 

·         K.-A. Toh, Q.-L. Tran and D. Srinivasan, “Benchmarking a Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Pattern Classifier”, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 6, pp.740-755, June 2004 (Regular). (MATLAB codes available in the paper)

 

Optimization and Control

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Deterministic Global Optimization for FNN TrainingIEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol.33, no.6, pp. 977-983, 2003 (Correspondence).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Global Optimization by Monotonic TransformationComputational Optimization and Applications, vol.23, no.1, pp.77-99, October 2002.

 

·         K.-A. Toh and R. Devanathan, “On Convexity and Quasiconvexity of an On-line Identification Formulation,” International Journal of Control, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 938-948, 2001.

 

·         K.-A. Toh and R. Devanathan, “Pattern-based Identification for Process Control   applications,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 641-648, 1996 (Brief).

 

·         K.-A. Toh and R. Devanathan, “An Autotuning Controller for 2x2 Interacting Processes,” Control and Computers (A Journal of IASTED), vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 53-58, 1995.

 

·         K.-A. Toh and R. Devanathan, “An Expert Autotuner for Multiloop SISO Controllers,” Control Engineering Practice (A Journal of IFAC), vol. 1, pp. 999-1008, December 1993.

 

 

·        Book Chapters/Edited Proceedings

 

·         Kar-Ann Toh, and Andrew B. J. Teoh, “Vascular Patterns”, Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security (2nd ed.), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-5905-8, pp.1353-1356, 2011.

 

·         Kar-Ann Toh, “Chapter 15: Multimodal Biometrics: An Overview and Some Recent Developments”, Advanced Topics in Biometrics, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., pp.381-400, 2012.

 

·         J.-G. Wang, K.-A. Toh, E. Sung and W.-Y. Yau , “Chapter 28: A Feature-level Fusion of Appearance and Passive Depth Information for Face Recognition,” Face Recognition, Kresimir Delac and Mislav Grgic (Eds.), pp.537-558, I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, July 2007

 

·         K.-A. Toh, Q.-L. Tran and D. Srinivasan, “Chapter 1: Hyperbolic Function Networks for Pattern ClassificationTrends in Neural Computation, Ke Chen and Lipo Wang (Eds.), pp.1-34, Springer, 2007

 

·         K.-A. Toh, X. Jiang, and W.-Y. Yau, “Relaxation of Hard Classification Targets for LSE Minimization,” Fifth International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (EMMCVPR), St. Augustine, Florida, USA, pp.187-202, November 2005 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3757).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Global Energy Minimization: A Transformation Approach,” in Proceedings of Third International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (EMMCVPR), pp. 391-406,   Sophia-Antipolis, France: Springer, September 2001 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 2134).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, J. Lu, and W.-Y. Yau, “Global Feedforward Neural Network Learning for Classification and Regression,” in Proceedings of Third International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (EMMCVPR), pp. 407-422, Sophia-Antipolis, France: Springer, September 2001 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 2134).

 

 

 

Conference Publications

 

·        Invited Papers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         S.-K. Kim, H. Lee, K.-A. Toh, and S. Lee,  “An Encoding Scheme for Robust Face Recognition”, The 2nd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Harbin, China, pp.653-658, May, 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        International Conferences (only 1999 onwards are listed)

 

·         K. Oh and K.-A. Toh, “Extracting Sclera Features for Cancelable Identity Verification”, International Conference on Biometrics (ICB), New Delhi, India, March29-April1, 2012.

 

·         B.-S Oh and K.-A. Toh, “Fusion of Structured Projections for Cancelable Face Identity Verification”, International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB), Washington DC, USA, October, 2011.

 

·         U. Yang, M. Kang, K.-A. Toh, K. Sohn, “An Illumination Invariant Skin-Color Model for Face Detection”, The Fourth IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Washington DC, USA, September, 2010.

 

·         B.-S Oh, K.-A. Toh, A. B. J. Teoh, “Direct Extraction and Fusion of Image Pixel Features for Face Identity Verification”, The Fourth IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Washington DC, USA, September, 2010.

 

·         Y. Kim, K.-A. Toh, A. B. J. Teoh, “An Online Learning Algorithm for Biometric Scores Fusion”, The Fourth IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Washington DC, USA, September, 2010.

 

·         K. Choi, K.-A. Toh and H. Byun, “A Random Network Ensemble for Face Recognition, The 3rd IAPR/IEEE Int. Conference on Biometrics, (ICB), Sardinia, Italy, pp. 92-101, 2-5 June 2009 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 5558)

 

·         M. Kang, B. Kim, K.-A. Toh and K. Sohn, “Surrounding Adaptive Color Image Enhancement based on CIECAM02”, 2008 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), pp.1031-1036, October, 2008.

 

·         Y. Kim and K.-A. Toh, “A Method to Enhance Face Biometric Security”, The First IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Washington DC, USA, pp.1-6 (DOI: 10.1109/BTAS.2007.4401913), September, 2007.

 

·         S. W. Jung, Y. Kim, A. B. J. Teoh and K.-A. Toh, “Robust Identity Verification Based on Infrared Face Images”, International Conference on Convergence Information Technology (ICCIT), Gyeongju, Korea, pp. 2066-2071, November, 2007.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Error-Rate Based Biometrics Fusion”, IAPR-IEEE Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication, (ICB), Seoul, Korea, pp. 191-200, August 2007 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4642)

 

·         Andrew B. J. Teoh, K.-A. Toh, and W. K. Yip, “2^N Discretisation of BioPhasor in Cancellable Biometrics,” IAPR-IEEE Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication, (ICB), Seoul, Korea, pp. 435-444, August 2007 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4642)

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Training a Φ-Machine Classifier Using Feature Scaling-Space”, Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Singapore, pp. 1334-1339, August, 2006.

 

·         K.-A. Toh and J. Kim, “Training a Full Polynomial for Face Recognition”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronics, Information and Communications, Mongolia, pp. 467-470, June, 2006.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, H.-L. Eng, Y.-S. Choo, Y.-L. Cha, W.-Y. Yau, and K.-S. Low, “Identity Verification Through Palm Vein and Crease Texture,” IAPR Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication (IAPR-ICB), Hong Kong, pp. 546-553, January 2006 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3832).

 

·         T.-K. Tan and C.-L. Ng, K.-A. Toh, H.-L. Eng, W.-Y. Yau, and D. Srinivasan, “A Bimodal Palmprint Verification System,” Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication (IAPR-ICB), Hong Kong, pp.737-743, January 2006 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3832).

 

·         J.-G. Wang, K.-A. Toh and R. Venkateswarlu, “Fusion of Appearance and Depth Information for Face Recognition”, Fifth International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA), New York, USA, (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3546). pp. 919-928, July 2005.

 

·         W.Y. Yau, S.L. Goh, J. Li, K.A. Toh and D. Srinivisan, “Using Unified Orientation Model for Fingerprint Classification,” Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and

·         Impulsive Systems Series B: Applications & Algorithms, Special Issue, pp. 668-673, 2005.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Personalized Learning and Decision for Multimodal Biometrics”, 2004 IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS), Singapore, pp. 1111-1116, December 2004.

 

·         Q. L. Tran, K.-A. Toh and D. Srinivasan, “Adaptation to Changes in Multimodal Biometric Authentication”, 2004 IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS), Singapore, pp. 981-985, December 2004.

 

·         E. Lim, K.-A. Toh, P. N. Suganthan, X. Jiang and W.-Y. Yau, “Fingerprint Image Quality Analysis”, International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Singapore, pp. 1241-1244, October, 2004.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, X. Jiang and W.-Y. Yau, “A Hyperbolic Function Model for Multiple Biometrics Decision Fusion,” Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication (ICBA), Hong Kong, pp. 655-662, July 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3072).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, W.-Y. Yau, E. Lim, L. Chen and C. H. Ng, “Fusion of Auxiliary Information for Multi-modal Biometrics Authentication,” Int. Conf. Biometrics Authentication (ICBA), Hong Kong, pp. 678-685, July 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3072).

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Fingerprint and Speaker Verification Decisions Fusion”, International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP), Mantova, Italy, pp.626-631, September, 2003

 

·         H.-L. Eng, K.-A. Toh, Alvin H. Kam, J. Wang and W.-Y. Yau, “An automatic drowning detection surveillance system for challenging outdoor pool environments”, The 9th International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), France, vol. I, pp. 532-579, October, 2003.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, W. Xiong, W.-Y. Yau and X. Jiang, “Combining Fingerprint and Hand-Geometry Verification Decisions”, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA), Guildford, United Kingdom, pp. 688-696, June, 2003 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 2688).

 

·         K.-A. Toh and K. Z. Mao, “A global transformation approach to RBF neural network learning,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), (Quebec, Canada), vol. II, pp. 96-99, August 2002.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, W.-Y. Yau, X. Jiang, T.-P. Chen, J. Lu, and E. Lim, “Minutiae data synthesis for fingerprint identification applications,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), vol.3, Greece, pp.262-265, October 2001.

 

·         K.-A. Toh, “Fast deterministic global optimization for FNN training,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Tokyo, Japan, pp. V413 - V418, October 1999.